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GPs: GPCog
Indigenous: KICA-Cog

Cognition Assessment Measures

  • Modified Mini Mental Exam (3MS)
    Purpose:  The Modified Mini Mental (3MS) was designed and validated to replace the Mini Mental (MMSE). The Australian government's assessment of the Mini Mental (MMSE) in DOMS 2007 found the Mini Mental to have serious validity issues. The Modified Mini Mental (3MS) addresses those issues and is a longer form. It takes five more minutes to administer.
    Admin Time:  15 min
    User Friendly:  High
    Administered by: Qualified health-care professional (at least trained in the Mini Mental) interviews the patient using a standard set of questions.  Scoring takes 5 min.
    Most Appropriate: Acute, Primary, Community, and Residential Care to assess global cognitive status in older people.  The 3Ms can be used to track cognition trend over time.  The 3MS can be used any time the Mini Mental is considered and a valid measure of cognition is desired.
    To obtain the 3MS material and approval for its use, please go to its web site at the University of Southern California:
  • The Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale
    - Cognition (ADAS-Cog)

    Purpose: To evaluate cognitive impairment in the assessment of Alzheimer’s disease. Recommended for second stage or more detailed assessments and/or for particular research evaluations rather than for applications in routine care settings.
    Admin time:  30-45 min
    User Friendly:  Medium
    Administered by:  Staff with specialist qualifications - Interviewer administered. Requires additional training.
    Most Appropriate: Usually administered by a neuropsychologist or psychologist with appropriate training.
    : Guidelines:
    1. The statement:  “Used with permission from the NIA Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study  (NIA Grant AG10483)”.  Please note that the ADAScog itself is not an ADCS-generated instrument, but the additional tasks of the maze and number cancellation are, and should be recognized with the above statement
    2. The following reference for the maze and number cancellation tasks:
      Mohs, R.; Knopman, D.; Petersen, R.; Ferris, S.; Ernesto, C.; Grundman, M.; Sano, M.; Bieliauskas, L.; Geldmacher, D.; Clark, C.; Thal, L.; and the ADCS. “Development of Cognitive Instruments for Use in Clinical Trials of Antidementia Drugs: Additions to the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale That Broadens its Scope.”  Alzheimer’s Disease and  Associated Disorders, 1997, Volume 11 (S2): S13-S21.
  • General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG)
    Is recommended because of its usefulness in the primary care setting.
    Purpose:  A reliable, valid and efficient instrument to screen for dementia in primary care settings.
    Admin time:  Less than 4 minutes to administer to a patient and 2 minutes to interview a care-giver.
    User Friendly:  High
    Administered by:  GP, Practice Nurse, or Nurse Practitioner.
    Most Appropriate: Primary and Residential Care
  • Psychogeriatric Assessment Scale (PAS)
    Added post DOMS 2007
     Cognitive screening tool to assess level of cognitive impairment/decline. The Scale also assesses stroke and behaviour change.
    Admin time:  10-20 min
    User Friendly:  High
    Administered by: Interviewer administered—data is routinely collected by nursing home staff trained in assessment as part of entry into care facilitie as per FICA. There are two scales, i.e. interview with resident and interview with care giver.
    Most Appropriate:  Nursing Homes
  • Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS)
    Designed to enable the easy translation of the items into other languages and to be culture fair--it is recommended for use with those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.
    Purpose:  Short cognitive screening tool, for assessment of dementia.
    Admin time:  10 min
    User Friendly:  High
    Administered by:  Interviewer administered, patient response questionnaire.
    Most Appropriate:  Primary, Community and Residential Care. A short cognitive screening instrument designed to minimise  the effects of cultural learning and language diversity  on the assessment of baseline cognitive performance. The respondent is encouraged to communicate  in their first language.  Therefore, the use of an interpreter is important. (The RUDAS, however, contains an item on judgement that may be inappropriate for remote Indigenous situations.)
  • Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment (KICA-Cog)
    Purpose:  The only validated dementia assessment tool for older indigenous Australians.
    Admin time:  10 min  with 18 questions
    User Friendly:  High
    Administered by:  Interviewer administered, patient response questionnaire.
    Most Appropriate:  
    Primary, Community and Residential Care.  In remote communities for those age 45 and older, when other instruments are not appropriate.
  • Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)
    (Added since DOMS 2007)
    Is recommended because of its usefulness as a quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) assessment.
    Purpose:  A reliable, valid and efficient instrument to use for screening, diagnosis and tracking of mild cognitive impairment. Not as useful for assessing more advanced stages of Alzheimer’s Disease.
    Admin time:  10 - 20 minutes to administer .
    User Friendly:  High
    Administered by:  Clinicians in all settings.
    Most Appropriate: Primary, Acute and residential settings.
    The MOCA was designed as a rapid screening instrument for mild cognitive dysfunction.  It assesses different cognitive domains: attention and concentration, executive functions, memory, language, visuo-constructional skills, conceptual thinking, calculations and orientation.  It has excellent psychometric properties and has become a widely used screening instrument for mild cognitive impairment (Smith, Gildeh & Holmes, 2007). Available in 31 languages.

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